Desalination wins over imports
Water levels in Israel's reservoirs and aquifers have dropped precipitously. The Sea of Galilee, Israel's main source of fresh water, which in the past supplied some 400 million metres³/year to the national water grid, has receded to its lowest level on record, and the government, after years of negligence, started in mid 2001 to explore emergency plans to alleviate the most serious water crisis in the country's history.
Two measures under consideration are the import of tankers of water from Turkey,
and desalination. Whereas the import of water from Turkey, at a quantity of
50 million metres³/year, is currently under negotiation, pending bilateral
trade agreements, the government has approved a large scale desalination policy,
with the aim to desalinate seawater and saline water at a quantity estimated
at 400 million metres³/year. Israeli and international companies responded
to tenders issued by the government and by Mekorot, Israel’s national water
company. The Israel Desalination Society (IDS) forecasts that a total of 400
million metres³ of water will be treated each year at a cost of $1.2BN,
and Water Commissioner Shimon Tal, estimates that $3.7BN is needed to develop
Israel’s water resources in the next 10 years.
In April 2001, Israel’s IDE Technologies began operating its plant in Larnaca,
Cyprus. IDE Chief Executive David Waxman was quoted in an article in The
New York Times saying that ‘Israel could use 10 such plants.’ Over the past
30 years, IDE has built nearly 300 desalination facilities worldwide, and is
a major contender in the current desalination race in Israel, applying new energy-efficient
Instead of heating and distilling the brine, the new filtration system strains
salt out of sea water using synthetic membranes in a process consuming half
as much power, compared with other desalination methods. Israeli water experts
say that world demand for these improved reverse osmosis systems, used also
for purifying brackish, saline and polluted water, is now growing at 10 times
the pace of thermal desalination.
Planned Israeli desalination facilities and other alternative sources are:
The Ashkelon, Ashdod, and Hadera Plants; coastal medium-small-size plants those
on the Negev-Arava Plateau.
IDE Technologies, Vivendi and Dankner-Ellern won the government’s tender to
build the Ashkelon desalination plant. Forming the VID Desalination company
(IDE with 50% of the shares, Vivendi – 25%, and Dankner-Ellern – 25%), this
consortium, the first to win a bid in Israel, set a precedent in the global
desalination business by quoting the lowest price ever of $0.52 for one metre3
of desalinated sea water. The facility, to be built at an investment estimated
at between $150M and $250M, is now scheduled to desalinate 100 million metres³/year,
double the volume specified in the initial tender.
The decision to add a second facility, came after Finance Minister Sylvan Shalom
exercised the State’s option it reserved in the original tender, thus making
it the country’s largest desalination facility, due to begin supplying water
by the end of 2003. VID Desalination surprised the water trade by quoting even
a lower price for desalinated sea water to be supplied by the second Ashkelon
facility – $0.47 per metre³.
Sources at the Water Commission commented that ‘VID’s move to lower prices
indicates the group’s plans to dominate the local desalination market in its
Ashdod Desalination, comprising the Baran Engineering and Projects; Ionics
of the US, and the Via Maris group – a consortium of the Israeli companies Tahal,
Oceana, Tambour Ecology, Gaon-Agro and the Spanish company Tadagoa, submitted
the bid to Mekorot to desalinate 45 million metres³/year at an investment
estimated at $130M. Scheduled to start supplying water at the end of 2003, the
Ashdod plant is a turnkey project.
The Hadera Plant is planned as a BOT, to be constructed near the country’s
major electric power station on the Mediterranean coast, to produce 50 million
metres³/year. The Ministry of National Infrastructures is now acting to
change the terms of this tender to increase its production to 100 million metres³/year.
Six local and international companies responded to the government’s tenders
to build small and medium size desalination plants on the sea coast. These plants,
all to be financed by private sources, are scheduled to produce some 65 million
metres³/year under the BOO method. A seventh player – the Rothschild Foundation,
through its development arm the Caesarea Development Company, announced last
year its intention to built a desalination plant to produce 250 million metres³/year
at a total investment of $500M, with the desalinated water sold to the government
for a period of at least 20 years.
The desalination projects in the Negev and Arava, the country’s arid areas
are planned to desalinate the region’s underground saline reservoirs. The tenders
specify desalinating 35-50 million metres³/year under the BOT method, for
an estimated $100M. The Negev/Arava projects will also cancel the need to transport
water, at high cost, from the country’s central and northern parts.