A quick cure for lining large diameter mains
A major capital project in the UK is saving time and money using new material for relining crumbling pipelines
The 33"dia Sheffield main provides 300,000 homes and business in the north of the city with water and delivers just over 7ML/day. Contractors John Kennedy (Civil Engineering) Ltd of Manchester lined the main in 100 metre sections, isolating each section by digging down to the main and removing a short length of pipe to allow access, before carrying out the work and then piecing the pipe back up. Around 80 of these excavations were made during the project.
Yorkshire Water's project manager, Richard Long said, 'This a very significant capital works scheme for us. Having proved in our field tests that the quick cure lining scheme works effectively in large diameter pipes, this is our first major scheme where it is being used. Other water companies are evaluating this new technology but we think this is one of the country's biggest capital schemes actually using it.'
Section 19 of the UK Water Act, which requires the guaranteed provision of potable water, has led to water companies concentrating their efforts on improving the legacy of Victorian cast iron mains which impart predominantly iron and manganese into the water. The manganese, which is deposited in the mains, emanates from the raw water and is as a result of historical water treatment processes which couldn't remove it. These have since been superseded. The iron is a product of corrosion of the cast iron mains themselves. Three possible solutions to this are: clean the pipe; completely replace sections of pipe; or scrape and reline.
In the first option, pipes are cleaned by forcing a foam swab along the pipe, normally using water pressure. This is only used, however, if the pipe is already lined.
Pipes are replaced if they have perished to such an extent that scraping could make them fragile. To test the integrity of a pipe a section is removed, shotblasted, and then the thickness of the remaining metal is measured.
In the case of the Sheffield main, the 100-year old pipes had been constructed from 2" (5 cm) thick cast iron, making the main an ideal candidate for the scrape and reline process using the quick cure technology. Drag scraping was used on each isolated section to remove encrusted matter by a 2 ft dia cylinder armed with backwards-facing spring-loaded metal teeth scraping the inside of the pipe clean.
Next, the trailer-mounted lining rig, comprising tanks containing the polyurethane materials held at the correct temperature by heaters, mixes the lining material and applies it centrifugally via its spinning head to the inside of the main. It is dragged along by a winch, leaving a uniform 1.5 mm thickness of polyurethane. Measurement devices monitor the correct speed of delivery of the material to the spinning head. Finally, a camera checks the quality of the lining.
Richard Long said, 'Traditional epoxy resin lining methods can mean consumers
are without water for up to 36 hours. The mains section has to be cut into,
scraped, lined, left for 16 hours then checked by camera before reconnection
can take place. This timescale can be unacceptable to business, hospitals, schools
and other essential users of water as well as to domestic
'Also, arranging alternative supplies can be expensive and slows down progress. Using the new method in the Sheffield scheme has significantly speeded up the completion of the project.'
Although the new quick cure material is more expensive, savings obtained by
the rapid cure time mean that overall relining costs are no higher than the
costs of traditional pipe lining and with increasing use, the cost of the new
material is likely to drop. However, with the Sheffield scheme, the alternative
to PU lining was MDPE sliplining due to epoxy resin being unsuitable for such
a large diameter pipe and as such this technique represents a significantly