The Paris Agreement
Al Gore: Trump has failed to knock Paris climate deal off course
Donald Trump has failed to knock the Paris climate agreement off course despite his efforts to derail it, according to the former US vice president Al Gore.
Earth Overshoot Day: Humanity has exhausted all of 2017's natural resources
Humanity has already used up its entire annual budget of planetary resources such as water, soil and clean air on the earliest day of the year since the Earth first went into "overshoot" in the early 1970s, according to research organisation Global Footprint Network.
Planet has just 5% chance of reaching Paris climate goal, study says
There is only a 5% chance that the Earth will avoid warming by at least 2C come the end of the century, according to new research that paints a sobering picture of the international effort to stem dangerous climate change.
RE100 targets 500 companies after hitting 100-member milestone
EXCLUSIVE: The Climate Group's RE100 initiative to get firms to source 100% renewable electricity is targeting 500 members by 2020, with each signatory encouraged to promote the initiative to its suppliers, after passing the 100-member milestone on Tuesday (11 July).
Reports: PM excludes climate change from G20 key priorities
As reports suggest that Theresa May has excluded climate change as one of her key priorities at the G20 summit which starts in Germany today (7 July), a new Greenpeace report has predicted that wind and solar power will be the cheapest form of power in all G20 countries by 2030.
TCFD: Businesses worth $2trn back final climate disclosure recommendations
More than 100 businesses including Unilever, Barclays and HSBC, have publicly committed to support the final recommendations listed by the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD), which seeks to disclose climate information as part of mainstream financial statements.
It's time for ACTION: 14 green policy priorities for the new UK Government - Part two
A decentralised energy system, more ambitious renewable energy targets and a stronger low-carbon heat and transport policy are all listed in the second part of edie's feature exploring the most critical areas of green policy that Theresa May's new Government must prioritise.
Eating for 2 degrees: Dietary changes can help UK hit Paris Agreement, says WWF
A new report from WWF has suggested that farmers, retailers and the UK Government should promote the consumption of fruit and vegetables to deliver a 30% emissions reduction and place the UK on the pathway to limit global warming to well below 2°C.
Queen's Speech: Government reiterates support for Paris Agreement and low-carbon Industrial Strategy
The Queen's Speech has outlined the Government's commitment to maintain global climate change leadership, alongside proposals to ensure the electric vehicle (EV) market begins to thrive over the upcoming years.
Apple targets supply chain efficiency through $1bn green bond
Apple has launched a dedicated funding stream to finance clean energy and environmental projects, through a $1bn green bond.
Compete and collaborate: The balancing act that will accelerate corporate sustainability
EXCLUSIVE: Businesses that thrive in the low-carbon economy will be those that can balance the necessity of collaboration to tackle global megatrends with an inherent competitive nature that drives efficiency improvements.
Paris Agreement: Why Member States are stronger without Donald Trump's meddling
The impact of the US' announced withdrawal from the Paris Agreement has been played down by climate experts, in the same week that a group of green organisations called on the next UK Prime Minister to defend the historic climate change deal.
'We are still in': US cities and businesses launch 'societal' commitment to the Paris Agreement
More than 900 companies, including Nike, Tesla, Google and Microsoft, have joined former New York Mayor Mike Bloomberg's declaration of defiance against Donald Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, with a vow to achieve and exceed the original commitment.
From Macron to Musk: World rallies behind #ParisAgreement following Trump's withdrawal
President Donald Trump's decision to withdraw the US from the Paris Agreement on climate change has drawn swift backlash from politicians, business leaders, celebrities and green groups across the world in a renewed effort to step up the fight against global warming.
Trump withdraws US from Paris climate agreement, but green business leaders remain defiant
US President Donald Trump has announced that the country is withdrawing from the Paris Agreement on climate change in a decision business leaders and green groups across the world have branded a political, economic and environmental failure of monumental proportions.
Reports: Trump set to announce US withdrawal from Paris Agreement
Reports have emerged detailing that US President Donald Trump has decided to withdraw the nation from the Paris Agreement, with a "small team" of executives deciding on the formal exit route.
Greener UK debate: Parties trade blows over environmental ambitions ahead of election
Environmental representatives from the UK's major political parties clashed last night (30 May) over international climate change leadership and other key green policy issues at a General Election hustings event in London.
Power sector urged to adopt world's first investment-grade carbon pricing mechanism
Financial heavyweights including Bank of America, Barclays and Hermes Investment Management have teamed-up to introduce the world's first investment-grade carbon pricing system for the power sector, aimed at aligning company operations with a 2°C pathway.
UN chief: Climate-aware businesses will dominate economy of tomorrow
The new Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN) has said that businesses that invest in low-carbon technologies to reduce emissions will become the future leaders of the global economy.
Musk, Polman and Branson among business leaders urging Trump to stay in the Paris Agreement
The mailbox at the Whitehouse is in danger of overflowing, as another letter - this time from 30 chief executives of some of the largest US firms - called on President Donald Trump to "champion" economic growth by staying in the Paris Agreement.
UK financial markets exposed to embedded fossil fuel reserves
UK businesses and investors may be inadvertently sitting on more than 15,000 tonnes of stranded fossil fuel asset emissions that could impact how the nation commits to a 2C energy scenario, new research has found.
Clean energy revolution 'locked in' by business aspirations, says Obama
The former US President Barack Obama has dismissed fears that the Trump administration could scupper clean energy growth in the US, but suggested that no country could afford to "sit on the sidelines" when combatting climate change.
Investors worth £11bn urge Trump to stick with Paris Agreement ahead of withdrawal decision
An investor group worth more than £11.5bn has urged Donald Trump to maintain support for the Paris Agreement, amid rife speculation that the President could seek to pull out the US from the landmark climate change deal as early as this week.
100 Days of Trump: Timeline of the President's environmental agenda
Saturday (29 April) marks President Donald Trump's 100th day in office and edie has created a timeline showcasing the numerous impacts the Republican has had on climate policy in the US.
Businesses push for renewed European focus on building renovations
A coalition of 300 businesses and organisations, including E.ON, Philips and Triodos Bank, has called on the European Union to take a leadership role in cutting emissions from existing building stocks, in order to reach the ambitions of the Paris Agreement.
Science-based targets 'critical' to achieve 2C world, BITC survey finds
The adoption of science-based-targets and the engaging with the supply chain are two of the biggest challenges facing sustainability professionals in the next decade, according to new research from Business in the Community (BITC).
Report: Halving global emissions by 2040 achievable if businesses act now
Businesses must act now to halve global emissions by 2040 and "set the stage" for further reductions required in the second half of the century, according to new research from a diverse group of investors, companies and NGOs.
Major firms implore G20 to act on climate-disclosure risks
The chief executives of 27 global businesses, including HSBC, Unilever and PwC, have called on G20 governments to adopt recommendations that call on companies to disclose climate-related financial risks.
Trump aides abruptly postpone meeting on whether to stay in Paris climate deal
Donald Trump's aides have abruptly postponed a meeting to determine whether the US should remain in the Paris climate agreement, with an unlikely coalition of fossil fuel firms, environmental groups and some Republicans calling on the president to stick with the deal.
Christiana Figueres: Peak emissions by 2020 'crazy but achievable'
Former UN climate chief Christiana Figueres remains "stubbornly optimistic" that market trends are already in place to hit ambitious three-year targets as part of her Mission 2020 campaign, but only if the "climate conversation" is extended to a wider range of stakeholders and investors.
Climate Turning Point: 2020 identified as 'game-changing' year for global action
A new report has highlighted 2020 as the year to "bend the curve" on global emissions that can set into a motion a series of transitions to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030 and reach net zero carbon by 2050.
Nick Hurd: Political will to reach climate commitments needs business support
A "genuine and irresistible" political momentum to reach the targets of the Paris Agreement needs to be supported at local and business levels to drive new innovations to decarbonise struggling sectors, the UK's Climate Change Minister Nick Hurd has claimed.
Europe's energy giants set to overshoot Paris Agreement 'carbon budget'
Europe's major utilities companies are "locked" into high emission projects, placing €14bn of earnings at risk unless they realign strategies with the goals of the Paris Agreement, a new CDP report has found.
Article 50: What we know (and don't know) about the environmental impact of Brexit
As the UK's departure process from the European Union (EU) officially commences with the triggering of Article 50, edie takes an in-depth look at how Brexit could affect Britain's green business community.
EU leads attacks on Trump's rollback of Obama climate policy
The European Union has led criticism of Donald Trump's effort to unravel Barack Obama's measures to combat climate change, suggesting that Europe will now take the lead in global efforts.
Vast majority of EU countries set to miss Paris Agreement goals, research finds
Only three European countries are on course to achieve the Paris Agreement targets, according to research which ranks the UK in fifth position on its progress towards the landmark climate treaty.
Study: Backing fossil fuels is economically and politically irresponsible
A shift away from fossil fuels to renewables is needed at international level if the targets of the Paris climate deal are to be met. The Berlin Energy Transition Dialogue wants to set an example by bringing plenty new to the table.
Energy transition of 'exceptional scope' can unlock $10trn annually
Global energy-related carbon emissions can be reduced by 70% by 2050, generating $10trn a year in benefits, if countries ramp-up national commitments to reach the goals of the Paris Agreement, a new report has found.
G20 set to scale back climate funding pledges
Pledges from G20 nations to finance climate mitigation strategies, including the $100bn fund for developing countries, could be set aside, with ministers instead calling on development banks to raise private capital to meet the bill.
Energy efficiency and flexible generation crucial to reach Paris goals, claims UN energy chief
Britain will need to double the rate of energy efficiency improvements, develop more energy interconnections and accelerate the transition to a flexible electricity grid if the country is to fulfil its ongoing climate change commitments, the chief executive of UN Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) Rachel Kyte has said.
What steps must be taken now to achieve the Paris Agreement?
A sustained low-carbon shift in energy production, transportation and land use are some of the most important actions required to keep global governments and businesses on track with the targets set out in the Paris Agreement, NewClimate Institute policy analyst and edie Live speaker Sebastian Sterl has said.
edie explores sustainability megatrends: Part 1 - Climate change
Kicking off edie's new series of thought-leadership articles on the global impact of megatrends. The Climate Group's corporate partnerships director Mike Peirce explores how climate change is radically changing the way we do business.
EU must phase out coal by 2030 to meet Paris goals, report claims
The last European coal plant must be closed by 2030 if the continent is to meet the objectives of the Paris Agreement, a new report from non-profit institute Climate Analytics has stated.
EXCLUSIVE: US withdrawal from Paris Agreement 'could happen any day', says Trump aide
EXCLUSIVE: The US will initiate all of Donald Trump's major climate change policy changes - including highly controversial moves to withdraw from the Paris Agreement and abolish the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - in the next few months, a key aide of the President has told edie.
Challenges, opportunities and priorities: Sustainability leaders answer the big questions
What is the biggest challenge facing sustainability professionals? What makes an effective CSR leader? And what should be at the top of your list of priorities for 2017? Last week's Sustainability Leaders Forum was the perfect opportunity to find out...
US climate action under siege ahead of Trump meeting with May
As Theresa May prepares to become the first world leader to meet officially with Donald Trump on Thursday (27 January), a flurry of reports have suggested that the US president is set to diminish the country's climate change commitments.
Obama injects $500m into Green Climate Fund
Just three days before he leaves office, outgoing president Barack Obama has moved to protect the momentum of the Paris Agreement through a new $500m instalment into the Green Climate Fund.
Major banks failing to align climate strategies to Paris Agreement targets
Despite more than 70% of banks introducing environmental and carbon footprint stress, many are failing to align business and investment strategies in keeping with the 2C pathway scenario established through the Paris Agreement.
Dear Mr Trump: We need a low-carbon USA, say 600 firms
More than 630 of America's largest companies and investors have renewed calls for President-elect Donald Trump to re-consider his climate change denial stance and support the nation's low-carbon policies.
From green bonds to solar roads: France's low-carbon revolution is taking shape
History was made in France a little over a year ago when national delegates from across the world agreed on a landmark climate deal. With the Paris Agreement now ratified, the host nation is introducing a plethora of fresh green legislation aimed at transforming the way it interacts with the environment.
Nick Hurd: Brexit offers the flexibility to strengthen Britain's decarbonisation commitments
Climate Change Minister Nick Hurd has insisted that Brexit will give the UK the opportunity to look at the low-carbon transition through a "prism of national interests" that could lead to significant economic growth, but only if the Government can overcome multiple "difficult challenges".
Europe urged to cut all transport emissions to keep climate pledge
Germany's Öko-Institut warned the EU must cut global warming transport emissions by 94% by 2050 to stop the planet's temperature rising above the two degree limit agreed by world leaders at the Paris climate summit in December 2015.
16 from 2016: the crucial sustainability stories of the year
With the year drawing gradually to a close, edie examines the major highlights that defined the global environmental and sustainability agenda in the past 12 months.
Petition calls for Barack Obama to fulfil Green Climate Fund pledge
More than 100 climate and development organisations, along with 70,000 people, have called on Barack Obama to help secure the future of the Paris agreement by transferring the remaining $2.5bn committed by the US.
Science-based targets top choice for sustainability leaders, edie survey reveals
The adoption of science-based targets to drive climate action is continuing to move rapidly up the corporate agenda, with more than half of sustainability leaders either beginning to apply or fully embedding the methodology within their organisation.
Climate action in a post-Trump world: game over or business as usual?
As part of edie's Sustainability Leadership Month of editorial content, Grosvenor's group sustainability director Kate Brown has penned this exclusive opinion piece, explaining the need for businesses to develop clear action plans and drive forward with sustainability leadership, regardless of the turbulent political backdrop.
States and regions putting Paris goals within reach, but only in the short-term
States and regions including California, Rio De Janeiro, Wales and Scotland are implementing "exemplary" near-term ambitions to place a 2C-world within reach, although a lack of long-term targets could stunt progress after 2030.
Will Trump join forces with US cities to combat climate change?
As Donald Trump's climate-denying rhetoric appeared to soften this week, the Mayors of 35 US cities have vowed to accelerate efforts towards a low-carbon transition - with or without the President-elect.
An unstoppable force: Seven things we learned from the COP22 climate talks
As political and business leaders board flights home from Marrakesh after two weeks of proactive discussions, edie looks back at some of the highlights of the UN's COP22 climate talks.
The Sustainable Business Covered podcast: Episode 15 - Fresh from Marrakesh
The Carbon Trust's chief executive Tom Delay and Asia Pulp & Paper's director of sustainability Aida Greenbury are the special guests on this week's podcast episode, which reviews the the UN's two-week COP22 climate talks in Marrakesh.
It's official: The UK has ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change
BREAKING: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Boris Johnson has today (17 November) put pen to paper and officially ratified the Paris Agreement on behalf of the UK, joining more than 100 nations that have now approved the historic climate deal.
US submits long-term climate strategy to United Nations
The US has presented a long-term strategy for ambitious emissions reductions in the face of domestic political uncertainty, after Secretary of State John Kerry delivered a rousing speech to delegates in Marrakesh to assert that US climate commitments will not be reversed.
200 companies now committed to science-based targets
An initiative that calls on companies to cut their carbon footprints in line with scientific studies geared towards a two degrees global warming limit is "far exceeding" it's timeline, with 200 companies now signed up to the scheme - just 18 months after its inception.
Business giants call on US to support the Paris Agreement
Despite president-elect Donald Trump's plans to pull out of the Paris Agreement, more than 360 US-based businesses and investors, including Ikea, Unilever, Mars and Nike, have reaffirmed their commitment to supporting the historic deal and the need to accelerate the low-carbon transition.
Paris climate deal at risk unless countries step up plans, says watchdog
The Paris agreement on climate change risks failure unless countries come forward with more ambitious and detailed plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions, the world's energy watchdog has warned.
COP22 update: Delegates drive on with climate action amidst Trump trepidations
As reports about US President-Elect Donald Trump's determination to walk away from the Paris Agreement emerge, delegates at COP22 in Marrakesh have forged ahead with ambitious new climate frameworks and bold pledges aimed at accelerating the global low-carbon transition.
Global emissions flatline for third consecutive year
A new report has today (14 November) revealed that global carbon emissions growth stalled for the third year in a row, but concerns remain that reduction efforts are inadequate to meet the global warming target of "well below 2C".
COP22: Major firms lead low-carbon energy drive
The first week of COP22 in Marrakech rounded-off on energy day, with a range of companies demonstrating their commitment to a low-carbon future with pledges to source 100% renewable energy.
Does Donald Trump's Presidential triumph spell the end of America's climate progress?
Donald Trump has pulled off one of the biggest electoral shocks in US history, beating Democrat Hillary Clinton to become the 45th US President. edie explores what this could mean for the country's future international leadership on climate action.
COP22: The first 48 hours
The COP22 climate conference kicked off in the Moroccan capital of Marrakesh on Monday (7 November), with several opening discussions and programme launches emphasising the crucial role of business in delivering a low-carbon economy.
Sir David King: Businesses must ensure infrastructure investment is fit for purpose
EXCLUSIVE: The UK's Special Representative for Climate Change Sir David King has stressed the "critical" importance that the private sector matches the Government's climate obligations by investing in infrastructure "fit for purpose" in the transition to a low-carbon economy.
'The beginning of a new era': World reacts to Paris Agreement coming into force
Green businesses and industry groups have wholeheartedly welcomed the official enforcement of the Paris Agreement, but environmental groups and other experts are now urging governments to go beyond the ambition of the deal in order to avoid catastrophic climate change.
Paris Agreement officially enters force: what happens next?
In the early hours of this morning (4 November), vision turned into reality as the Paris Agreement officially came into force, ushering a new era of climate action. But what does this actually mean for the global green economy?
COP22: Seven green business wishes for the Marrakesh climate talks
edie hears sustainability professionals, businessmen and environmental activists to round-up exactly what the green economy wants to see from the 22nd Conference of Parties (COP22) climate change talks in Marrakesh, Morocco.
UN: Paris Agreement still not good enough to avoid serious climate change
Less than 24 hours before the Paris Agreement formally enters into force, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has warned that governments and the private sector must together scale-up climate ambition to reduce an additional 25% from predicted 2030 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
'Paris Agreement-proof' buildings needed to curtail soaring emissions
Energy demand from the building sector will double by mid-century without widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies and a significant improvement in building and appliance efficiencies, new analysis has found.
UK tops G20 on carbon reduction levels
Britain remains a "world-leader" on climate action, with new figures from the professional services firm PwC ranking the country the highest of the G20 group of nations when it comes to annual average reductions in carbon intensity over the past 15 years.
Paul Polman: Every business in the world must make a climate commitment
Unilever chief executive Paul Polman has urged the business community to act on its moral duty and deliver on the sustainability objectives set through the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement.
Paris pathway paved with risk and opportunity for business, says CDP chief
EXCLUSIVE: "A story of risk and opportunity" is emerging for businesses that are yet to modify their operational plans to account for climate change and drive the transition to a "well-below two degrees" world, the chief executive of global disclosure organisation CDP has claimed.
Brexit, Paris and low-carbon heat: 10 green policy messages for the UK Government
As the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) releases three new reports on the UK meeting its climate commitments, edie rounds up the key green policy calls made by the Committee surrounding low-carbon heat, Brexit and the Paris Agreement.
Climate watchdog calls for 'concrete green policy action' amidst Paris Agreement and Brexit
Britain's green policies must be preserved or strengthened post-Brexit and a credible new strategy on low-carbon heat must be delivered as soon as possible, but it is still too early for the Government to adopt stricter targets for tackling climate change in line with the soon-to-be-ratified Paris Agreement, the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) has said.
'Turning point for our planet': Green economy reacts to Paris Agreement ratification
The Paris Agreement, which will enter into force on 4 November, has been hailed by global businesses and political leaders as a "truly historic moment" in the fight against climate change, which could eventually go down in history as "the most impactful multilateral treaty of all time".
Paris Agreement poised to enter into full force as EU ratifies
The historic Paris Agreement will enter into force before the COP22 Marrakech event next month after the European Parliament approved its fast-track ratification today (4 October).
Video: DiCaprio and Obama on role of business and carbon tax in the climate 'battle against time'
US President Barack Obama has called on businesses to invest and innovate in order to "build a bridge to a clean energy future" during an interview with actor-turned-environmentalist Leonardo DiCaprio, warning that the planet is in a "race against time" to combat climate change.
EU fast-tracks deal to ratify Paris Agreement
The Paris Agreement is close to entering into force, after European Union (EU) Ministers approved to fast-track the ratification process at an Environment Council extraordinary meeting in Brussels today (30 September).
Next President unlikely to meet US emissions targets set in Paris
As Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton placed climate change in the spotlight during Monday night's (26 September) presidential debate with Republican nominee Donald Trump, new research has suggested that the US looks set to miss its 2025 emissions reduction pledge.
Paris climate agreement poised to come into force
The Paris climate agreement is on the brink of coming into force after 31 nations officially joined the landmark accord, with the United Nations secretary general, Ban Ki-moon, predicting it will be fully ratified by the end of the year.
Businesses match governments with bold climate pledges during Climate Week NYC
The level of climate ambition shown from businesses during Climate Week 2016 in New York City (NYC) is continuing to mount, with eight more companies making 100% renewable energy pledges and four firms committing to double the energy productivity of their operations.
The Paris effect: Are businesses ready for a new climate reality?
As the UK joins a growing list of nations pledging to ratify the Paris Agreement on climate change, a new report released today (21 September) reveals that more than 600 big businesses - worth $12tn - have already started to factor in the profound impacts the deal could have on their operations.
UK to ratify the Paris Agreement this year, says Theresa May
UK Prime Minister Theresa May has vowed that the UK will have officially ratified the Paris Agreement by the end of 2016, although it is believed the ratification process could be finalised within a matter of weeks.
'The moment we decided to save our planet': US and China ratify Paris climate deal
"History will judge today's effort as pivotal," proclaimed President Barack Obama as the US and China both officially ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change, marking a major breakthrough in the battle to limit global warming.
EU Member States offered climate target flexibility in bid to cut emissions
EU member states will be able to bank annual emissions savings from sectors such as agriculture and transport, and use them in later years to meet their climate targets, under EU legislation set to be put forward today (20 July).
UN heavyweights call for Paris ratification by end of year
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres and COP21 President Ségolène Royal have all called on the world's governments to "turn aspirations into urgent implementation" by ratifying the Paris Agreement ahead of the COP22 climate talks at the end of the year.
Climate action provides 'thread of certainty' for post-Brexit Britain, says Christiana Figueres
The UN's soon-to-depart climate chief has quashed claims that the UK's impending departure from the European Union (EU) could derail the Paris Agreement, instead claiming that a concerted effort to tackle climate change could be the "thread of continuity" that the UK needs during this "uncertain and volatile" period.
The Business End of Climate Change: How collective action could help us realise a 2C world
Big business is not waiting around to play its part in tackling climate change. By 2030, companies will have together slashed emissions by at least 3.7 billion metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent (mtCO2e) every year - and this figure could almost treble within a more ambitious policy environment.
Why the world's energy system WON'T achieve the 2C climate change target without serious investment
By the year 2040, renewables will finally have won the global energy race. The prices of coal and gas will have dropped significantly, but this will not derail the decarbonisation of our energy systems - with zero-emission energy sources making up 60% of installed capacity.
"The EU is doing its homework": Commission makes landmark proposal to ratify Paris Agreement
The European Commission has today (10 June) presented its plans for the European Union (EU) to ratify the historic Paris Agreement, calling for a swift process of enshrining the global climate deal into European law.
Patricia Espinosa nominated to replace Christiana Figueres as UN climate chief
Mexican diplomat Patricia Espinosa looks set to replace Christiana Figueres as the new Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) after receiving the nomination in a selection process led by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon.
Paris climate deal: countries with about half of global emissions to join this year
The White House has said countries accounting for about half of the world's greenhouse gas emissions would join the Paris climate agreement this year, bringing the agreement "within striking distance" of entering into force.
175 countries sign Paris climate agreement on Earth Day
Political leaders from more than 170 countries - including the China, the US and the UK - came together at the UN headquarters in New York to officially sign the Paris Agreement on Earth Day (22 April).