The Ozone Transport Commission (OTC), which was created by Congress as part of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments has found that in states participating in the scheme, NOx emissions have been reduced to more than 60% below 1990 levels, and are now 11% below legal limits. According to the OTC, the scheme has also reduced overall control costs for NOx by as much as a third, and has enhanced overall cost-effectiveness.

The scheme was implemented in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states, and in the District of Columbia by the OTC and the EPA, and, according to the EPA, has resulted in a unique partnership between state and federal government.

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