The ruling was unusual as the Courts of Justice of the European Union had already heard the case in 2001.

The case pitted the European Commission against the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg over Article 5(4) of Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources.

The court ruled that by failing to take every step to comply with Article 5(4) Luxembourg has failed to fulfil its obligations under that directive.

To read the full findings of the court click here.

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