Set design and construction involved more than 49 tons of recovered or donated raw materials. Production designer for the film Mark Friedberg said: “We’re going to have a lot of steel to give back and a lot of glass to chop up and give back”.

The vast amount of replica snow that was used on set for some of the film’s scenes was “totally biodegradable”, while the atmospheric smoke was water based, instead of the commonly used oil based smoke used.

Special effects supervisor John Frazier said that this attention to detail made these effects “less harmful to the atmosphere and to the actors”.

Other initiatives included a textile recycling programme for the film’s wardrobe department, local food donation from the crew’s leftover meals and the “elimination of plastic water bottles”. Sony Pictures revealed that 193,000 plastic water bottles were conserved because of the ban.

The film’s eco manager Emelie O’brien said that sustainability was an important element of film production because “the entertainment industry is one of the most influential industries in our society”.

Friedberg said that sustainability is something that is “seeping into the culture of film making”.

Earlier this week, the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) announced that it is improving its industry carbon calculator to enable better reporting for television and film productions.

Leigh Stringer

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