Cold, hard concentration
As standard waste water treatment systems become overloaded, and the drive for the "zero-discharge" plant becomes ever-greater, new methods of treatment have to be found. Steve Holt, Niro Ltd, looks at the role of freeze concentration as a practical and cost-effective way of meeting legislative requirements and protecting the environment.
The claims for freeze concentration are very impressive. Up to 75%
in energy consumption, 80% reduction in fuel gas consumption, reduced
bio-treatment requirement and clean water recovery for use elsewhere in the
Niro Freeze Concentration (NFC) is a process by which wastewater can be
concentrated to greatly increase the solids content, thereby significantly
reducing the power required in incineration. The process works by ³growing²
pure ice crystals in the feed
solution, then extracting and
melting them to provide a clear flow of pure water (<50ppm) that may be reused or disposed of safely. The remaining concentrate has a much higher solids content and can be destroyed through conventional incineration at much lower cost. The process also offers additional savings compared with thermal concentration or oxidation processes which must use expensive materials due to the higher process temperatures.
In its simplest form, the unconcentrated liquid is pumped from a feed tank
through a heat exchanger, which instantly forms small ice crystals. These
crystals are pumped to a recrystaliser where they are mixed with larger ice
crystals. The small crystals have a slightly lower equilibrium temperature
than the larger crystals and so melt on the surface of the larger ones then
refreeze causing the large crystals to grow further.
When the crystal formation process is complete, the resulting slurry is
pumped to a wash column where the ice is separated and discharged leaving
the concentrated solution behind for incineration. As crystallisation
creates “pure” water crystals the residual solids in the water is very low.
The closed system design eliminates vapour/liquid interfaces and,
prevents volatile losses from the system. Water produced in this way will
meet most quality requirements for direct discharge. It can be used
in the plant without the need for further bio-treatment.
Freeze concentration provides a stable operation base due to the relatively
large volume of ice in the system. Changes in the feed are absorbed in the
system with little effect on the water removal capacity and with no
The NFC process has been successfully tested on waste solutions containing
various compounds such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium benzoate, sodium
acetate, magnesium sulphate and other organic and inorganic salts. It will
also treat solutions containing acetaldehyde, ethanol, methanol and more.
The process has the benefit of being able to recover water from solutions
without any loss of the compounds themselves. In addition, the system
requires little routine maintenance, is simple to operate and is
to variations in feed composition. Capacity ranges from 500 to 50,000kg/hr
are available on a commercial scale.
NFC is already accepted as proven technology within the food industry for
concentrating fruit juices, etc. It is now beginning to be recognised as
appropriate for wastewater treatment and has significant benefits over
existing evaporation and oxidation processes.
There are already two commercial plants up and running: one in Singapore
Seraya Chemicals (a Shell/Mitsubishi/Sumitomo/Phillips Petroleum joint
venture) which has operated since 1997; and one in the Netherlands for
Basell (a BASF/Shell joint venture) which is now in the commissioning
The SCSL plant uses the system for disposing of the liquid waste stream
their styrene monomer/propylene oxide (SMPO) production facility. The
primary organic hazardous components (POHCs) are considered to be hazardous
to the environment and are destructive to standard bio-treatment systems.
Shell performed an extensive feasibility study during 1991-1994 of a
of disposal options including various wet-air oxidation processes and
evaporation and freeze concentration followed by incineration and
biotreatment. the capital and operating costs of freeze concentration were
similar to others in the study. However, when all the auxiliary components,
specialised construction, extensive pilot plant and validation work, and
known operational problems were included for each method, freeze
concentration came out on top, meeting all the plant¹s water discharge,
operating service factor, process stability and control, and economic
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