One of the major changes of recent years is the vast amount of accurate data

which modern instrumentation makes available. However, it comes in a variety

of forms from a variety of sources, and can be utilised in many different


In order to transform raw data into charts, the information needs to be

plotted and statistical analysis is then required to indicate variability in

relation to standard deviations. By demonstrating how many of the readings

fall within preset limits, the charts act as a measure of performance

against specified criteria.

As part of an overall policy, Severn Trent has been setting more exacting

targets for drinking water quality which operatives must endeavour to meet.

The aim is to encourage better process control. To help them to achieve this

the company has been instituting a program through which operators can

generate their own control charts, giving them a quick and simple way of

measuring their performance. By processing their own data, staff will be

able to see how close they are to the desired results, and compare

improvements in performance over time. Regular blips might identify

recurring problems which could be solved by a change in procedures which

might otherwise have gone undetected. Comparisons with other works would

provide an added incentive or indicate the need for new or additional


It was, however, clear that if staff were to be encouraged to produce and

use their own control charts, it was important that creating them should be

made as easy and painless as possible. Working out how this could be done

has been the task of a team at Severn Trent¹s Water Supply Regional office

in Worcester.

The Worcester team started work in June 1997. “We had vast amounts of data

relating to a wide variety of different parameters, some of which are easier

to measure than others,” said David Smith, the team leader. “One of the

first moves was to plot benefit against feasibility for a number of

different criteria to decide which elements would be give the most useful


The decision was that control charts would be produced for levels of four

parameters: fluoride, phosphate, chlorine and pH.

The second question was to decide which set of data should be used. Raw data

are available from several sources ­ SCADA, laboratory tests, etc ­ and

these were assessed in terms of their number, availability, accuracy,

operator involvement and reliability. The one set which fulfilled all the

criteria was produced by the operators themselves as a result of the routine

testing and monitoring which they carried out during their work.

“We then had to work out the best way to implement the program,” explained

David Smith “This meant deciding among other things how often the results

would be recorded, how target changes would be incorporated, who would

record the results and how and where the results would be displayed.” Of

even more importance was who would be responsible for the statistical

calculations required to produce the charts.

When the proposal was put to the operatives themselves this last issue was

the major hurdle. Staff saw the production of the charts as an expert job,

requiring specialised skills which had not previously been required of them.

They were understandably concerned that they might need training in

statistics and worried that if the wrong information was recorded it would

reflect on their performance.

The key factor in reassuring staff over these anxieties was the decision to

automate chart preparation by using a computer. What was needed was a

program which would carry out all the necessary calculations and, in effect,

turn the recorded readings into charts at the press of a few buttons. The

problem then turned to finding a suitable program.

“We looked into using one which already existed, but could not find anything

which we felt did what was needed,” said David Smith. “In the end a member

of the team wrote the program to match our specification.” Trials followed

at Strensham, Mythe and Draycote treatment works to sort out any problems.

After a short training period the existing staff were successfully producing

their own charts of process variability based on the information entered by

the operators.

Having proved the system was practical and effective, it was then worked up

into a standardised package, both as to program and procedures, for wider


To date it is in operation for Severn Trent’s potable water operations in

the Southern Shires district, and is gradually being brought in to the East

and West Midlands districts.

Giving operators the ability to handle their own raw data and prepare their

own charts in this way means they are far more directly involved in the

processes they control. “We are bringing it all down to operator level ­

they produce the charts and interpret the results. They can see where

anomalies are happening, find out why, and decide themselves what to do to

improve matters,” said David Smith. And as he pointed out, by comparing the

charts month by month they can see the effect of their efforts to produce

better results.

For management, the charts can provide a coherent picture of overall

performance. They help to ensure every effort is made to optimise

processes, identify where improvements can be made through capital

investment and help to prioritise in which areas these investments will be

most effective.

But above all, instituting the policy of monitoring the processes in this

way encourages the aim for constant and continuous improvement in quality ­

and hence greater customer satisfaction.

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